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Final Report: Research on Settlement Services Available in French for Francophone Newcomers to Ontario

STUDY CONDUCTED FOR THE ONTARIO Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration


3. DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

The following tables provide a demographic analysis of Francophone immigration to Ontario using data from the 2006 Census. While these data are somewhat dated, they are still useful as they depict general trends.

Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 present the differences in the numbers and percentages of immigrants, depending on whether Mother Tongue (MT) or First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) is used to perform calculations. The FOLS heading comes closest to the Inclusive Definition of Francophone (IDF) adopted by the Province of Ontario.

These tables clearly demonstrate the importance of the IDF when it comes to services for Francophone immigrants. Using the FOLS criterion, there are 96,010 Francophone immigrants in Ontario. Using the MT criterion, there are 36,980 Francophone immigrants in Ontario. This represents a difference of 259% ((96,010/36,980)*100). It should be noted that a similar gap in percentages occurs when we compare the data using the FOLS criterion with the data using the MT criterion for Anglophone immigrants. For some 2 million Anglophone immigrants, English is the FOLS, but English is not their mother tongue.

Table 4 and Table 5 confirm a significant trend in Francophone immigration. Table 4 presents the regions from which all 96,010 Francophone immigrants in Ontario came. In 2006, 35,645 Francophone immigrants or 37.1% came from Europe and 21,925 or 22.8% came from Africa. Table 5 presents the data for the 22,150 new Francophone immigrants, i.e., those who immigrated to Canada between 2001 and 2006. In 2006, 6,480 or 29.3% of new Francophone immigrants came from Europe and 7,185 or 32.4% of new immigrants came from Africa. Between 1996 and 2006, there was a shift in the countries of origin of Francophone immigrants to Ontario.

Table 6 confirms that Ontario’s Francophone immigrants are young. In 2006, some 60% of Francophone immigrants were aged 44 and under.

Table 7 presents the historical trends in Francophone immigration to Ontario, by decade, beginning in 1961. To present a table by decade, we projected the total number of immigrants for the decade 2001-2010 by doubling the number of immigrants who arrived between 2001 and 2006. Figure 1 illustrates the upward trend of Francophone immigration to Ontario, which is four times higher in the last decade, compared to the decade from 1971 to 1980.

Figure 1 – Trend in Francophone Immigration to Ontario – 1961 to 2011 – First Official Language Spoken
Trend in Francophone Immigration to Ontario

Legend:
PLOP Français – FOLS French
PLOP Anglais et français – FOLS English and French
TOTAL FRANCOPHONE (PLOP F + PLOP AF) – TOTAL FRANCOPHONE (FOLS F + FOLS EF)
à – to
Projection – Projection

Table 8 presents the places where Francophone immigrants in Ontario live, by Census division. In 2006, approximately 92% of Francophone immigrants lived in Toronto, Ottawa or southern Ontario. In 2006, approximately 31,800 Francophone immigrants or 33.1% lived in Toronto, followed by 23,340 or 24.3% who lived in Ottawa. Peel and York regions had approximately 19,000 Francophone immigrants or 20%. The regions of Hamilton, Halton, Essex, Waterloo, Middlesex, Durham and Niagara accounted for approximately 15% of Francophone immigrants.

Table 9 presents the data for new Francophone immigrants (immigrants arriving between 2001 and 2006). The trend is basically the same, except that 39% settled in Toronto and 22% settled in Ottawa.

Table 1 – Profile of Francophone Immigration in Ontario – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
ACCORDING TO FIRST OFFICIAL LANGUAGE TOTAL FOLS ENGLISH FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(FOLS F +
FOLS EF)
   
TOTAL POPULATION 12 028 895 11 189 935 497 155 80 890 578 045 4.8% FRANCOPHONE POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL POPULATION
Non-immigrants 8 512 020 7 994 680 453 680 23 770 477 450    
Immigrants 3 398 725 3 091 855 40 645 55 365 96 010 2.8% FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANT POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL IMMIGRANT POPULATION
            16.6% FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANT POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL FRANCOPHONE POPULATION
Table 2 – Profile of Francophone Immigration in Ontario – 2006 – Mother Tongue
ACCORDING TO MOTHER TONGUE TOTAL MT ENGLISH MT FRENCH MT ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(MT F + MT EF)
   
TOTAL POPULATION 12 028 900 8 361 995 496 600 36 255 532 855 4.4% FRANCOPHONE POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL POPULATION
Non-immigrants 8 512 020 7 355 090 461 105 32 325 493 430    
Immigrants 3 398 725 974 105 33 205 3 775 36 980 1.1% FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANT POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL IMMIGRANT POPULATION
            6.9% FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANT POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL FRANCOPHONE POPULATION
Table 3 - Comparison between Mother Tongue and First Official Language Spoken – 2006 – Number and Percentage of Francophone Immigrants in Ontario
DIFFERENCE IN THE NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS ENGLISH FRENCH ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(F + EF)
PERCENTAGE OF FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANTS WITH FOLS BASED ON THE NUMBER CALCULATED USING MT
WITH FOLS 3 091 855 40 645 55 365 96 010 259.6%
WITH MT 974 105 33 205 3 775 36 980  
DIFFERENCE -2 117 750 -7 440 51 590 59 030  
           
DIFFERENCE IN THE NUMBER OF NEW IMMIGRANTS (2001-2006) ENGLISH FRENCH ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(F + EF)
PERCENTAGE OF NEW FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANTS WITH FOLS BASED ON THE NUMBER CALCULATED USING MT
WITH FOLS 505 135 9 145 13 005 22 150 287.5%
WITH MT 101 365 6 800 905 7 705  
DIFFERENCE -403 770 -2 345 12 100 14 445  
Table 4 – Worldwide Sources of Francophone Immigrants – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
ONTARIO TOTAL FOLS ENGLISH FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(FOLS F +
FOLS EF)
%  
                 
TOTAL POPULATION Total population 12 028 895 11 189 935 14 615 80 890 578 045 4.8% FRANCOPHONE POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL POPULATION
  Non-immigrants 8 512 020 7 994 680 453 680 23 770 477 450    
  Immigrants 3 398 725 3 091 855 40 645 55 365 96 010 2.8% FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANT POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL IMMIGRANT POPULATION
              16.6% FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANT POPULATION AS A % OF TOTAL FRANCOPHONE POPULATION
                 
IMMIGRANTS BY PROVENANCE United States 106 405 104 375 1 235 445 1 680 1.7% PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANTS
  Central America 58 940 53 475 325 1 485 1 810 1.9%  
  West Indies and Bermuda 211 380 205 340 4 505 785 5 290 5.5%  
  South America 157 700 149 505 475 2 515 2 990 3.1%  
  Europe 1 307 885 1 210 755 14 065 21 580 35 645 37.1%  
  Africa 164 795 139 635 15 320 6 605 21 925 22.8%  
  Asia and the Middle East 1 376 595 1 214 155 4 595 21 890 26 485 27.6%  
  Oceania etc. 15 025 14 615 125 60 185 0.2 %  
Table 5 – Worldwide Sources of New Francophone Immigrants – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
ONTARIO TOTAL FOLS ENGLISH FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(FOLS F +
FOLS EF)
%  
NEW IMMIGRANTS (ARRIVED BETWEEN 2001 AND 2006) BY PROVENANCE United States 18 305 17 630 180 175 355 1.6% PERCENTAGE OF NEW FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANTS (2001-2006) FROM EACH REGION
  Central America 9 315 7 750 10 210 220 1.0%  
  West Indies and Bermuda 20 105 18 570 1 035 180 1 215 5.5%  
  South America 30 390 27 180 95 760 855 3.9%  
  Europe 84 590 72 025 1 740 4 740 6 480 29.3%  
  Africa 40 320 31 685 5 255 1 930 7 185 32.4%  
  Asia and Middle East 375 225 327 865 830 5 005 5 835 26.3%  
  Oceania etc. 2 495 2 425 10 10 20 0.1%  
2001 to 2006   580 740 505 135 9 145 13 005 22 150 23.1%  
Table 6 – Francophone Immigrants and Age Groups – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
ONTARIO TOTAL FOLS ENGLISH FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(FOLS F +
FOLS EF)
%  
IMMIGRANTS BY AGE GROUP 0 to 14 years 181 200 164 660 3 120 6 315 9 435 9.8% PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANTS
  15 to 24 years 308 655 290 125 3 965 10 520 14 485 15.1%  
  25 to 44 years 1 076 995 1 013 970 14 210 19 320 33 530 34.9%  
  45 to 64 years 1 160 830 1 068 570 12 095 13 335 25 430 26.5%  
  65 years and over 671 045 554 535 7 255 5 875 13 130 13.7%  
Table 7 – Francophone Immigration by Period of Immigration from 1961 to 2000 and Projection for 2001-2010 – Ontario – First Official Language Spoken
ONTARIO TOTAL FOLS ENGLISH FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(FOLS F +
FOLS EF)
%  
IMMIGRANTS BY PERIOD OF IMMIGRATION Before 1961 442 695 423 945 3 765 2 085 5 850 6.1% PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FRANCOPHONE IMMIGRANTS
  1961 to 1970 405 185 378 110 5 225 3 045 8 270 8.6%  
  1961 to 1970 478 340 444 900 5 455 5 095 10 550 11.0%  
  1981 to 1990 558 225 505 580 6 280 9 785 16 065 16.7%  
  1991 to 2000 933 545 834 190 10 780 22 345 33 125 34.5%  
  2001 to 2006 580 740 505 135 9 145 13 005 22 150 23.1%  
  PROJECTION 2001-2010
(= 2001-2006 x 2)
1 161 480 1 010 270 18 290 26 010 44 300    
                 
Table 8 – Francophone Immigrants by Census Division – Ontario – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
Francophone Immigrants (FOLS) by Census Division – Ontario – 2006
  FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE PERCENTAGE OF PROVINCIAL TOTAL
ONTARIO 40 645 55 365 96 010  
Toronto (3520)   01010 11 350 20 450 31 800 33.1%
Ottawa (3506)   00000 13 330 10 010 23 340 24.3%
Peel (3521)   00001 3 605 6 930 10 535 11.0%
York (3519)   00000 2 880 6 000 8 880 9.2%
Hamilton (3525)   00000 800 1 700 2 500 2.6%
Halton (3524)   00000 1 105 1 355 2 460 2.6%
Essex (3537)   00000 825 1 625 2 450 2.6%
Waterloo (3530)   00000 625 1 505 2 130 1.9%
Middlesex (3539)   20 000 720 1 140 1 860 1.7%
Durham (3518)   00000 815 825 1 640 1.4%
Niagara (3526)   01000 595 735 1 330 0.8%
Frontenac (3510)   01010 325 485 810 0.8%
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry (3501)   20000 445 300 745 0.7%
Simcoe (3543)   00000 375 290 665 0.7%
Prescott and Russell (3502)   01000 465 170 635 0.6%
Greater Sudbury (3553)   00010 440 160 600 0.6%
Wellington (3523)   00000 175 380 555 0.3%
Peterborough (3515)   01010 145 130 275 0.2%
Brant (3529)   20 000 130 110 240 0.2%
Lambton (3538)   00010 135 65 200 0.2%
Leeds and Grenville (3507)   00000 125 70 195 0.2%
Hastings (3512)   21 010 115 50 165 0.2%
Cochrane (3556)   21 010 130 35 165 0.2%
Chatham-Kent (3536)   01010 85 70 155 0.2%
Grey (3542)   01000 65 80 145 0.1%
Oxford (3532)   00000 60 80 140 0.1%
Thunder Bay (3558)   01010 95 40 135 0.1%
Lanark (3509)   00000 60 70 130 0.1%
Renfrew (3547)   01010 80 45 125 0.1%
Algoma (3557)   01010 80 40 120 0.1%
Haldimand-Norfolk (3528)   20 000 60 50 110 0.1%
Nipissing (3548)   21 010 75 35 110 0.1%
Perth (3531)   00000 30 60 90 0.1%
Northumberland (3514)   01010 50 30 80 0.1%
Muskoka (3544)   21 010 30 40 70 0.1%0.1%
Kawartha Lakes (3516)   01010 20 35 55 0.1%
Huron (3540)   00000 10 45 55 0.1%
Timiskaming (3554)   01010 35 20 55 0.1%
Dufferin (3522)   00001 20 25 45 0.0%
Elgin (3534)   00000 25 20 45 0.0%
Lennox and Addington (3511)   00000 15 15 30 0.0%
Prince Edward (3513)   01010 30 0 30 0.0%
Parry Sound (3549)   01010 15 15 30 0.0%
Kenora (3560)   22 020 20 10 30 0.0%
Bruce (3541)   01010 10 15 25 0.0%
Rainy River (3559)   00010 0 0 10 0.0%
Haliburton (3546)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Manitoulin (3551)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Sudbury (3552)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Table 9 – New Francophone Immigrants by Census Division – Ontario – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
New Francophone Immigrants (FOLS) by Census Division – Ontario – 2006
  FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE PERCENTAGE OF PROVINCIAL TOTAL
ONTARIO 9 145 13 005 22 150 39.8%
Toronto (3520)   01010 2 970 5 845 8 815 22.3%
Ottawa (3506)   00000 3 340 1 600 4 940 22.3%
Peel (3521)   00001 1 175 1 840 3 015 5.4%
York (3519)   00000 265 930 1 195 3.0%
Hamilton (3525)   00000 245 410 655 2.8%
Essex (3537)   00000 175 450 625 2.0%
Waterloo (3530)   00000 110 340 450 1.9%
Middlesex (3539)   20 000 125 305 430 1.8%
Halton (3524)   00000 115 290 405 1.8%
Durham (3518)   00000 125 265 390 1.4%
Niagara (3526)   01000 95 205 300 0.6%
Greater Sudbury  (3553)   00010 105 25 130 0.5%
Simcoe (3543)   00000 60 60 120 0.5%
Wellington (3523)   00000 20 95 115 0.5%
Frontenac (3510)   01010 15 85 100 0.3%
Prescott and Russell (3502)   01000 45 20 65 0.3%
Lambton (3538)   00010 50 10 60 0.2%
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry (3501)   20000 15 35 50 0.2%
Peterborough (3515)   01010 20 20 40 0.1%
Northumberland (3514)   01010 10 20 30 0.1%
Oxford (3532)   00000 0 30 30 0.1%
Chatham-Kent (3536)   01010 0 25 25 0.1%
Nipissing (3548)   21 010 15 10 25 0.1%
Hastings (3512)   21 010 10 10 20 0.1%
Muskoka (3544)   21 010 0 20 20 0.1%
Lanark (3509)   00000 0 15 15 0.1%
Brant (3529)   20 000 0 15 15 0.0%
Leeds and Grenville (3507)   00000 0 10 10 0.0%
Lennox and Addington (3511)   00000 10 0 10 0.0%
Kawartha Lakes (3516)   01010 0 10 10 0.0%
Perth (3531)   00000 0 10 10 0.0%
Grey (3542)   01000 10 0 10 0.0%
Renfrew (3547)   01010 10 0 10 0.0%
Timiskaming (3554)   01010 0 10 10 0.0%
Cochrane (3556)   21 010 10 0 10 0.0%
Algoma (3557)   01010 10 0 10 0.0%
Prince Edward (3513)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Dufferin (3522)   00001 0 0 0 0.0%
Haldimand-Norfolk (3528)   20 000 0 0 0 0.0%
Elgin (3534)   00000 0 0 0 0.0%
Huron (3540)   00000 0 0 0 0.0%
Bruce (3541)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Haliburton (3546)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Parry Sound (3549)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Manitoulin (3551)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Sudbury (3552)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Thunder Bay (3558)   01010 0 0 0 0.0%
Rainy River (3559)   00010 0 0 0 0.0%
Kenora (3560)   22 020 0 0 0 0.0%
Table 10 – Francophone Immigrant Population as a Percentage of the Total Immigrant Population – Ontario – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
Francophone Immigrant Population as a Percentage of the Total Immigrant Population - Ontario – 2006 – First Official Language Spoken
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ONTARIO TOTAL FOLS ENGLISH FOLS FRENCH FOLS ENGLISH AND FRENCH TOTAL FRANCOPHONE
(FOLS F +
FOLS EF)
FRANCOPHONES AS A % OF TOTAL PEOPLE WITHOUT FOLS
TOTAL POPULATION 12 028 895 11 189 935 497 155 80 890 578 045 4.8% 260 915
IMMIGRANTS 3 398 725 3 091 855 40 645 55 365 96 010 2.8% 210 860
RECENT IMMIGRANTS
(2001 TO 2006)
580 740 505 135 9 145 13 005 22 150 3.8% 53 455

Table 10 reveals four significant facts:

It should be noted that the totals for Columns 34, and 5 (FOLS English, FOLS French, and FOLS English and French categories) do not correspond to the totals in Column 2. The difference is the number of people without a first official language spoken, i.e., the number of people who spoke neither English nor French at the time of the 2006 Census. This number is provided in Column 8.


Table of Contents

Executive Summary
List of Tables
1. Mandate
2. Organization of the Report
3. Demographic Analysis
4. Review of the Literature
5. Survey of Settlement Service Organizations
6. Finding of Our Interviews with Service Providers
7. Findings of Interviews with Francophone Leaders
8. Findings of the Focus Groups
9. French Language Bridge Training Programs
10. Summary of Research Findings
11. Conclusion: Further Avenues for Research
Schedules