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Expanding Our Routes To Success

The Final Report By Ontario's Expert Roundtable On Immigration

Appendix - Glossary of Key Terms

Bridge Training
Programs that are designed to provide internationally trained individuals with occupation-specific training and other supports to help program participants prepare for licensure and employment in regulated occupations, or get the training and experience required to work in highly-skilled, non-regulated professions.

Business Immigrants
Permanent residents in the economic immigrant category selected on the basis of their ability to establish themselves economically in Canada through entrepreneurial activity, self-employment or direct investment. Business immigrants include entrepreneurs, self-employed people and investors. The spouse or common-law partner and the dependent children of the business immigrant are also included in this category.

Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement (COIA)
Provided a framework for long-term cooperation on immigration issues by defining the respective roles and responsibilities of each government and increased federal funding of settlement and integration programs and services in Ontario to better reflect the cost of service delivery and the magnitude of immigration to the province. COIA expired on March 31, 2011. Ontario is currently the only province without a bilateral immigration agreement with the federal government.

Canadian Experience Class (CEC)
This immigration category came into effect on September 17, 2008. This is a prescribed class of persons who may become permanent residents on the basis of their Canadian experience. They must intend to reside in a province or territory other than Quebec and must have maintained temporary resident status during their qualifying period of work experience as well as during any period of full-time study or training in Canada.

Economic Immigrants
Permanent residents selected for their skills and ability to contribute to Canada's economy. The economic immigrant category includes skilled workers, business immigrants, provincial or territorial nominees, live-in caregivers and persons arriving through the Canadian Experience Class.

Economic immigrants in the business immigrant category who are selected on the condition that they have managed and controlled a percentage of equity of a qualifying business for at least two years in the period beginning five years before they apply, and that they have a legally obtained net worth of at least $300,000. They must own and manage a qualifying business in Canada for at least one year in the three years following arrival in Canada.

Expression of Interest (EOI)
A model that employs a pool of highly skilled workers who have expressed interest in immigrating to Canada, from which employers can select based on labour market need. This is the model currently used by Australia and New Zealand. The Federal Budget 2012 reference to a faster and fairer immigration system includes the development of an EOI system.

Family Class
Permanent residents sponsored by a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident living in Canada who is 18 years of age or over. Family class immigrants include spouses and partners (i.e., spouse, common-law partner or conjugal partner); parents and grandparents; and others (i.e., dependent children, children under the age of 18whom the sponsor intends to adopt in Canada, brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces, and grandchildren who are orphans under 18 years of age, or any other relative if the sponsor has no relative as described above, either abroad or in Canada). Fiancés are no longer designated as a component of the family class under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.

Foreign Students
Temporary residents who are in Canada principally to study in the observed calendar year. Foreign students have been issued a study permit (with or without other types of permits). Under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, a study permit is not needed for any program of study that is six months or less. Foreign students exclude temporary residents who have been issued a study permit but who entered Canada principally for reasons other than study.

Foreign Workers
Temporary residents who are in Canada principally to work in the observed calendar year. Foreign workers have been issued a document that allows them to work in Canada. Foreign workers exclude temporary residents who have been issued a work permit but who entered Canada mainly for reasons other than work.

Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP)
This is the federal government's primary program for permanent economic immigration. The worker's overall capacity to adapt to Canada's labour market is evaluated by a points-based selection system. Skilled workers are assessed on education, official language ability, age, overall adaptability, arranged employment, and skilled work experience. To be eligible, applicants must meet the minimum number of points required of a skilled worker or the "pass mark" set by the federal Minister. Since September 2003, the pass mark is 67 points (out of 100). Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) is proposing additional changes to the FSW Program that would increase points for first official language proficiency and a younger age cohort, introduce minimum language requirements depending on occupation, relax points for education, and require a rigorous assessment of arranged employment.

Government-Assisted Refugees (GARs)
Permanent residents in the refugee category who are selected abroad for resettlement to Canada as Convention refugees under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or as members of the Convention Refugees Abroad Class, and who receive resettlement assistance from the federal government.

Human Capital-Based Selection
The process of selecting immigrants based on their level of human capital (e.g. language skills, education, and work experience). Citizenship and Immigration Canada's 2010 evaluation of the Federal Skilled Worker Program found that more diversity of occupations and countries of origin, higher levels of post-secondary education, and greater official language capacity resulted in better economic outcomes for principal applicants.

Humanitarian and Compassionate Cases
Permanent residents included with other immigrants who are sponsored humanitarian and compassionate cases outside the family class, humanitarian and compassionate cases without sponsorship, and cases that take into account public policy. On an exceptional basis, the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act gives Citizenship and Immigration Canada the authority to grant permanent resident status to individuals and families who would not otherwise qualify in any category, in cases where there are strong humanitarian and compassionate (H&C) considerations, or for public policy reasons. The purpose of these discretionary provisions is to provide the flexibility to approve deserving cases not anticipated in the legislation.

Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA)
Regulates immigration to Canada. IRPA defines three primary classes of immigrants: economic class immigrants, family class immigrants, and refugees. IRPA also allows for several temporary resident categories including: temporary foreign workers, international students, visitors, and holders of temporary resident permits (TRPs).

Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP)
Provides varying levels of temporary health insurance coverage to resettled refugees, protected persons, and refugee claimants prior to coverage by a provincial or territorial health insurance plan.

Economic immigrants in the business immigrant category who are required to make a substantial investment in Canada that is allocated to participating provinces and territories for economic development and job creation.

Jobs and Prosperity Council
Will advise the Government of Ontario on a plan to boost Ontario's productivity. The Council will seek to leverage the experience of business, labour, academics and non-government organizations. The Council will recommend and lead a comprehensive research agenda on Ontario's productivity and innovation challenges. The government will seek advice from the Council on improving research and development tax credits to increase business R&D expenditures and simplify compliance and administration. The Council will advise on restructuring and transforming Ontario's existing business advisory services to boost their role in driving productivity. It will also help the government promote entrepreneurship and reach out to global markets and host an Ontario Productivity Summit.

Labour Market Opinion (LMO)
An assessment provided from HRSDC/Service Canada to an employer who wants to hire a foreign worker. The assessment is based on the impact a worker would have on Canada's labour market or, in other words, how the offer of employment would affect Canadian jobs. In some cases, special exemptions apply. For example,some defined occupations do not require an LMO but need a CIC exemption approval.

Live-in Caregiver (LIC)
Persons granted permanent resident status as economic immigrants after their participation in the Live-in Caregiver Program. This program brings temporary foreign workers to Canada as live-in employees to work without supervision in private households to care for children, seniors or people with disabilities. Participants in this program may apply for permanent resident status within three years of arrival in Canada, once they have completed two years of employment as live-in caregivers. The Live-in Caregiver Program replaced the Foreign Domestic Movement Program on April 27, 1992.

Mentorship Program
Programs that help skilled immigrants meet people in their profession and learn more about Ontario's workplaces. These programs allow immigrants to gain a better understanding of the local job market in their field or occupation, establish valuable networking contacts, and learn more about sector-specific language and professional practice in Canada.

Occupation-Based Selection
The process of selecting immigrants based on narrow, occupation-based criteria. Selection policy shifts over the past several years have resulted in increased use of occupation-based criteria as a means of addressing the backlog of applications to the Federal Skilled Worker Program. Currently, Citizenship and Immigration Canada will only process FSWP applications based on a list of 29 priority occupations, with a cap of 500 applications per occupation.

Permanent Resident
Someone who has acquired permanent resident status by immigrating to Canada but is not yet a Canadian citizen. Permanent residents have rights and privileges in Canada even though they remain citizens of their home country.

Principal Applicant
Permanent residents identified as the principal applicant on their application for a permanent resident visa for themselves and, if applicable, for accompanying spouse and/or dependents when they apply to immigrate to Canada. For individuals or families applying to immigrate to Canada in the skilled worker category, only the principal applicant is assessed on the basis of selection criteria in place at the time of the application.

Provincial Nominee Program (PNP)
Under IRPA, provinces can nominate people for permanent residence on the basis of their ability to economically establish themselves in Canada. Provinces can set criteria for nomination in order to meet provincial objectives. Opportunities Ontario is Ontario's Provincial Nominee Program. This program is mainly targeted at immigrants with job offers. Opportunities Ontario also nominates international students who have recently graduated from an Ontario university with a Master's or PhD degree.

Permanent residents in the refugee category include government-assisted refugees, privately sponsored refugees, refugees landed in Canada and refugee dependants (i.e., dependants of refugees landed in Canada, including spouses and partners living abroad or in Canada).

Refugee Claimant
Temporary residents in the humanitarian stream who request refugee protection upon or after arrival in Canada. A refugee claimant receives Canada's protection when he or she is found to be a Convention refugee as defined by the United Nations' 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol, or when found to be a person needing protection based on risk to life, risk of cruel and unusual treatment or punishment, or danger of torture as defined in the Convention Against Torture. A refugee claimant whose claim is accepted may make an application in Canada for permanent residence. The application may include family members in Canada and abroad.

Resettlement Assistance Program
Helps refugees and protected persons resettle in Canada by providing them with financial assistance to cover the costs of accommodations, essential clothing, household effects and other living expenses. It is delivered by Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

Seasonal Agricultural Workers
Matches workers from Mexico and Caribbean countries with Canadian farmers who need temporary support, when qualified Canadians or permanent residents are not available.

Source Country
Refers to the principal country of last permanent residence for all permanent residents and temporary residents, unless otherwise indicated. For refugee claimants, source country refers to the principal country of alleged persecution.

Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP)
Enables Canadian employers to hire foreign workers on a temporary basis to fill immediate skills and labour shortages when Canadians and permanent residents are not available.

Temporary Resident
Foreign nationals who are lawfully in Canada on a temporary basis under the authority of a valid document (i.e., a work permit, study permit, temporary resident permit, or a visitor record) issued for the purpose of entering Canada and individuals who seek asylum upon or after their arrival in Canada and remain in the country pending the outcome of processes relative to their claim. Temporary residents include foreign workers, foreign students, the humanitarian population and other temporary residents.

Two-Step Immigration
In the past, economic immigrants often received permanent residency status before arriving in Canada. Now, economic immigrants usually receive temporary visas, through temporary foreign worker programs or international student visas. These temporary visas are the first step of the two-step immigration process. The Canadian Experience Class program and provincial nominee programs are the second step in the two-step process—immigrants who have proven their labour market success on a temporary visa are then invited to apply for permanent residency.

Undocumented Worker
Individuals who are not Canadian citizens and do not have authorization from CIC to be present in Canada. Undocumented workers can be in Canada for a variety of reasons. Examples of undocumented workers include, but are not limited to: failed refugee claimants who do not report for removal from Canada; visitors or foreign workers who remain in Canada after the expiry of their visa; and individuals who enter Canada without authorization.